In some cultures student grade disputes are rare, in some they are nonexistent and in some they are frequent. The educator is not able to control the social norms and cultural expectations of an entire locale. Other than an educator selecting where they will teach, they must accept the schema that is operational in that culture in regards to educators and disputing their renderings (e.g., grades). If an educator selects to teach in a locale where student grade disputes occur, they must accept that there is nothing that they will be able to do to prevent them. They are part of the cultural expectation.
There are steps that the educator may take to be optimally prepared for them and to remove all anxiety or concern on their part.
1) You were a student. What were your worst memories of poor grading and feedback? Use those as models of what NOT to do.
2) Grading is sharing and showing your work. For example, I provide multiple modes of grading and feedback (voice notes, text detailed feedback regarding each aspect of the rubric elements and written embedded comments in substantive papers).
3) Consistently demonstrate and illustrate to your students your joy and passion for your work.
NOTE: If you are teaching in an institution that has [...]